To the Ministry of the Environment and specifically to Chris Hamilton, Manager, Wildlife Act and Regulatory Change, Fish and Wildlife Branch

Suggestions offered by the Westcoast Society for the Protection and Conservation of Reptiles concerning the Regulatory Change following the amendments to the Wildlife Act passed with Bill 29-2008

A word about us.
The Westcoast Society for the Protection and Conservation of Reptiles is an incorporated non-profit society dedicated to the protection and conservation of reptiles (not only the native species) and the education of the general public about reptiles, their ecology and ethology, and the vast undeserved prejudice that these animals are object of in Western culture. The Society has been operating in the Metro Vancouver and Victoria areas of BC for the last 30 years, implementing educational displays and encounters with schools and local communities, successfully working on the endless task of dispelling negative myths and teaching respect for this awfully misunderstood Class of animals.
Most of our work would have been impossible without the help of reptiles kept as pets and companions by our members, and a large part of our efforts has always been to teach, encourage correct husbandry, and safe practices for the captive keeping of reptiles. Our experience with many different species dates from before the time, some 20 years ago, when reptiles started to become fashionable pets advertised by the commercial pet trade.
Our Society's concern has always been the conservation and protection of reptiles in the environment and the safety and welfare of reptiles kept as pets. These purposes, we have found over the years, are more successfully fulfilled by increasing educational efforts. Some groups, concerned as we are with animal welfare, hold a different opinion and may seek to introduce restrictive legislation which they see as preventative measures against animal abuse, even if instead of openly being legislation against animal abuse, it is disguised as public safety measures, and even if this means slandering those same animals they are supposed to protect, posing them as source of danger when they are not. These tactics do, in our opinion, ultimately defy the purpose that they are supposed to further.
We would like everybody involved in this discussion to remember that the safety and welfare of alien species in captivity (exotic pets) does not appear to fall within the purview of the regulations to be drafted following the amendments to the Wildlife Act as indicated by added section 6.4 that states:
"If the minister considers that a non-native species described in paragraph (a) or (b) of the definition of "species" poses a risk to the health or safety of any person or poses a risk to property, wildlife or wildlife habitat, the minister may make regulations designating the species as a controlled alien species."
The Animal Cruelty Act is what should be used, and continually perfected, to address the welfare of animals living in a human-controlled environment, domestic and exotic both. The measures required by the Wildlife Act are to protect the health and safety of people and to safeguard native wildlife and environment.
It is in this respect that our suggestions have been drafted, after the consideration of multiple other submissions given to the discussion.

Our suggestions.
We believe it to be of the utmost importance that every decision is taken on the basis of hard scientific facts and actual scientific research and assessments. Logic, reason and common sense should be applied to the interpretation of data. The popular perception of some animal species as "bad" or "good", which very often is what the media and the unspecialised literature propagate, should never influence decisions on these matters.
The Westcoast Society for the Protection and Conservation of Reptiles is willing to offer help for the implementation of any regulatory system based on assessment of knowledge, safety and proper husbandry. We would also like to be involved wherever a discussion with concerned parties is enabled.

REPTILES: PUBLIC HEALTH CONCERNS
Aside from rare illnesses linked to wild-caught animals originating from exotic places, the only disease widely associated with reptiles is salmonella infection. It is not a specific zoonosis (animal transmitted disease) because most frequently people get infected not by contact with animals but by contact with food. Salmonellosis outbreaks seem to be a recurrence in our society, usually caused by lack of hygiene, and they do seem to pose a very moderate danger to the average population, seriously threatening only infants and immunosuppressed/immunodeficient individuals exposed to the bacteria; moreover, although there are cases of salmonellosis connected to reptiles, and some strains are more virulent than others, actual outbreaks, that is numerous interconnected cases, can only be linked to contaminated foodstuffs (except for the notorious US case of small pet turtles which numbers of toddler children were allowed to put in their mouth, in the Seventies). Nevertheless, especially in the media, there is recurrent scare mongering in reference to reptiles as specific carriers of salmonella, which affects the public image of reptiles and the public perception of their dangerousness.
The most reliable reports on salmonella infections can be obtained from health authorities. As reviews on larger sections of population are more statistically indicative, the information available from U.S. health agencies is relevant. The information on salmonellosis from the CDC (http://www.cdc.gov/healthypets/diseases/salmonellosis.htm) clearly states:
"Yes, many kinds of animals can pass salmonellosis to people. Usually, people get salmonellosis by eating contaminated food, such as chicken or eggs. However, animals can carry Salmonella and pass it in their faeces (stool). Therefore, people can also get salmonellosis if they do not wash their hands after touching the faeces of animals. Reptiles (lizards, snakes, and turtles), baby chicks, and ducklings are especially likely to pass salmonellosis to people. Dogs, cats, birds (including pet birds), horses, and farm animals can also pass Salmonella in their faeces."
Health authorities also strive to protect us beyond what's reasonable, but despite their expressed wish that people avoid contact with baby birds and reptiles if not with every animal, people continue to keep, pet and handle animals (1.7 millions households with reptiles was the estimated number in the USA in 2001, and according to new estimates it should be almost double at the present time). And despite such behaviour, the same health authority (http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5249a3.htm) acknowledges at the bottom of its review about salmonella and reptiles:
"Overall, reptile and amphibian contacts are estimated to account for 74,000 (6%) of the approximately 1.2 million sporadic Salmonella infections that occur each year in the United States." (Mermin J, Hutwagner L, Vugia D, et al. Reptiles, amphibians, and human Salmonella infection: a population-based, case-control study. Clin Infect Dis Suppl (in press)).
Animal carried salmonella infections can be prevented by simple ordinary hygiene practices (washing hands and equipment with soap and water), by keeping oneself and one's household animal members clean, and by avoiding contact by immune-suppressed people and infants.
Notwithstanding the disregard of such hygiene practices that is widespread, only 6% of salmonellosis cases in the U.S. can be related to reptiles.
In view of all this, it is our conclusion that the keeping of reptiles IN PROPER SANITARY HUSBANDRY does not in any way constitute a concern for public health.

REPTILES: HUMAN SAFETY CONCERNS
Questions about which types of reptiles can be safely kept as pets by the average person are often raised, as with most exotic animals.
The statistics available on deaths and accidents from government agencies show that severe accidents or deaths of humans caused by captive reptiles Ð with the sole exception of venomous species Ð have been and are exceptionally rare in North America as well as in Europe, despite the fact that millions of households in the USA, hundreds of thousands in Europe and many thousands in Canada include pet reptiles. So far the herpetocultural hobby has seen the keeping of even potentially very dangerous animals like venomous snakes, for over 30 years since reptiles started becoming popular in the pet trade, with only very few accidents.
Nevertheless as the popularity of pet reptiles increases, the concern should be addressed that there are a number of reptiles that are either venomous or too large to be safely kept by the average person without extensive training and proper facilities.
We suggest a list of reptiles whose ownership and keeping should be restricted for public safety reasons: their potential dangerousness to be assessed against the harm that a fully developed representative of the species, at its average adult size, can inflict on an average human being.
Venomous snakes whose bite can kill or cause extensive damage, crocodilians and giant lizards whose adult average size exceeds 2 m (7 ft), as well as giant snakes whose adult average size exceeds 4.5 m (14 ft), should only be allowed in the keeping of recognised scientific, conservational and educational institutions and organisations, or of people holding a special permit.
Large constrictor snakes whose adult average size is between 3 m (10 ft) AND 4.5 m (14 ft) should only be allowed in the keeping of people holding a permit based not only on the payment of a fee but also on demonstrable capability for handling/husbandry and for maintaining proper habitats.
Venomous snakes whose bite is not lethal but still causes localised and temporary problems should only be allowed in the keeping of people holding a permit based not only on the payment of a fee but also on demonstrable capability for handling/husbandry and for maintaining proper habitats safely secured.
Crocodilians whose adult average does not exceed 1.2 m (4 ft), should only be allowed in the keeping of people holding a permit based not only on the payment of a fee but also on demonstrable capability for handling/husbandry and for maintaining proper habitats.
Large lizards whose adult average size exceeds 1.6 m (5 ft) and 15 kg (33 lb.), but does not exceed 2 m (7 ft), should only be allowed in the keeping of people holding a permit based not only on the payment of a fee but also on demonstrable capability for handling/husbandry and for maintaining proper habitats.
The compiling of any list should follow an assessment of the actual species, without falling to the easy temptation of bunching animals together by Genus, which has often produced aberrations like including the Ball Python (Python regius, a tame, extremely popular species that never exceeds 5 feet and bred in captivity for decades) in the same category as the Rock Python (Python sebae, a true giant whose place is in zoos when removed from the wild), just because they belong to the same Genus.
Also, in the case of large reptiles, the assessment of a species should be done considering the average size and weight reached by the individuals belonging to it, not the greatest size ever recorded. Especially with reptiles, there has been a tendency even by natural researchers in the past to look for the marvellous and the monstrous rather than the normal: which is why so much specialised literature until recent times mentions record measurements instead of average findings. And for animals that display scientifically recognised size variation by locale within the same species (as many insular locality reptiles display), this should be taken into account.
Moreover, the pet trade has been producing in the last decade size mutations of some species of larger snakes (for example the reticulated python and the Burmese python), commercially known as dwarf or super-dwarf varieties: these animals are of much smaller size than their wild counterparts, and a way to acknowledge their existence should be found.

REPTILES: ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS
The conservation of biotopes is a serious concern of the present time. Together with the threats posed by removal of animals from the wild and by the destruction of natural habitats on a global level, the dangers to biological diversity posed by invasive alien (exotic) species, from plant to animal, are a serious problem to be addressed everywhere unique biotopes exist.
Limiting the spreading and circulation of invasive species is a reasonable course to take, and for it to be effective the free trade, reproduction and ownership of invasive species must be restricted.
It is our recommendation that any list of invasive species be drawn on the basis of hard science and factual findings. There has been in the last 30 years a large enough bulk of research on invasive species that sound criteria can be laid out to determine what defines a species as invasive, what grades of invasiveness are to be considered a threat, and what management tactics are recommended.
Our suggestion about reptiles is to include in a list of invasive species to be strongly restricted those identified in "Invasive Alien Species Framework for BC: Identifying and Addressing Threats to Biodiversity", that is the European wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) despite its degree of invasiveness is rated low. And the Red-eared slider turtle species and subspecies (Trachemys scripta), because even if not yet identified as an invasive species present in BC in 2004, its invasiveness has been proved so high everywhere that stopping at least its free trade seems a reasonable course.
Assessments should be commissioned at regular intervals to determine whether or not our local biotopes continue to be threatened by already identified invasive alien species and whether new ones have appeared that should be restrictively controlled.

SUGGESTED SOLUTION
It is our belief that all the above concerns would be best addressed by a system of licences/permits, which also would help finance the enforcement of the regulations.
Our suggestion is to divide the alien wildlife species into 3 categories:
Category A. Species identified as posing serious safety risks to humans (to the average healthy individual) or as invasive species posing serious risk to the environment. These should only be allowed in the keeping of recognised scientific, conservational and educational institutions and organisations (including specialised rescues), or of people holding a type of permit that qualifies them and their facilities to keep animals that pose risks to humans or the environment, according to the type of risk posed (i.e. valid specific anti-venom available on the premises at all times when venomous reptiles are kept; security of enclosures; rules for approaching and handling giant reptiles that include the presence of at least two persons at the task). A zoo licence/permit should be implemented for this Category.
Category B. Species identified as posing some potential safety risks to humans (to the average healthy individual) or potential risks to the environment. These should only be allowed in the keeping of people holding a permit based not only on the payment of a fee but also on demonstrable capability for handling/husbandry (including requirements for properly sized and secure enclosures). Something similar to current Wildlife Permit type 2(j) could be used (without the rule about persons not being able to possess live wildlife to keep as pets) as it provides for an inspection of the facilities where the animal(s) is/are to be kept. A provision for a knowledge test to be passed in order to obtain such permit should also be made.
Animals in this category should only be bred under a permit (similar to Permit type 2(j)) and every one of them should be individually identified and should be accompanied by the certification of origin and transfers of ownership for its entire life. Micro-chipping is possible and safe with most large to medium reptiles and constitutes a reliable means of permanent identification.
A special permit should be issued to recognised Rescue Facilities/Organizations (similar to Permit type 2 (t)) whose personnel can also be instrumental in providing training and tests/examinations for prospective keepers of regulated alien wildlife of Category B.
Category C. All other species, which by exclusion are considered as not posing safety risks to humans. These should not be restricted, except by whatever is mandated by CITES and other international and national conservation agreements. An exotic animal ownership permit only requiring the payment of a reasonable fee (similar to the system in SK) could be implemented for this category to encourage responsible ownership and increase the data available on the ownership of exotic pets in BC, besides helping finance the system.

A grandfather clause should be put in place so that animals falling into Category A or B are not disposed of improperly or abandoned. The persons already owning restricted species should be allowed to acquire a permit enabling them to keep their animals to the end of their natural life, without breeding them, unless they are unable to meet the safety and husbandry required for the species in their keeping.
Recognised rescues should also be allowed to adopt out animals falling into Category B, and entrusted with the screening and training of potential adopters.

The Westcoast Society for the Protection and Conservation of Reptiles is willing to help in the drafting of guidelines of husbandry requirements for the keeping of reptiles in captivity.



SUGGESTED LIST
We have quoted the most widespread English common names for every species. The taxonomic data follow what is made available by the TIGR Reptile Database at the J. Craig Venter Institute (http://www.reptile-database.org/)
The scale of dangerousness followed for venomous snakes is the one made available by the Clinical Toxicology Resource of the University of Adelaide, Australia (perusable at http://www.toxinology.com/fusebox.cfm?fuseaction=main.snakes.search)

CATEGORY A
Venomous snakes whose bite can kill or cause extensive damage, crocodilians and giant lizards whose adult average size exceeds 2 m (7 ft), as well as giant snakes whose adult average size exceeds 4.5 m (14 ft) and species proved invasive and dangerous to the environment.
These animals should only be allowed in the keeping of recognised scientific, conservational and educational institutions and organisations (including specialised rescues), or of people holding a type of permit that qualifies them and their facilities to keep animals that pose risks to humans or the environment, according to the type of risk posed (i.e. valid specific anti-venom available on the premises at all times when venomous reptiles are kept; security of enclosures; rules for approaching and handling giant reptiles that include the presence of at least two persons at the task).


TURTLES (Order Testudines)
Suborder Cryptodira, Superfamily Testudinoidea, Family Emydidae. Subfamily Deirochelyinae, Genus Trachemys:
Trachemys scripta (red-eared sliders, yellow-bellied sliders, pond sliders, Cumberland sliders) -- invasive and dangerous to the environment.

CROCODILES (Order Crocodylia)
Family Crocodylidae, Subfamily Alligatorinae:
All Genus * Alligator (Alligators) -- average 2 m to 4 m (7 ft to 13 ft), powerful jaws
All Genus * Caiman (Caimans) -- average 2 m to 3.5 m (7 ft to 11 ft), powerful jaws
All Genus * Melanosuchus (Black Caiman) -- average 3 m to 5 m (10 ft to 16 ft), powerful jaws
Genus Paleosuchus:
Paleosuchus trigonatus (Smooth-fronted Caiman ) -- average 2 m to 2.5 m (7 ft to 8 ft), powerful jaws
Family Crocodylidae, Subfamily Crocodylinae:
All Genus * Crocodylus (Crocodiles) -- average 3 m to 6 m (10 ft to 19 ft), powerful jaws
All Genus * Mecistops (African slender-snouted crocodile) -- average 1.7 m to 2.5 m (5.6 ft to 8 ft), powerful jaws
All Genus * Osteolaemus (African dwarf crocodile, Black Crocodile) -- average 1.5 m to 1.7 m (5 ft to 5.6 ft), powerful
Family Crocodylidae, Subfamily Gavialinae:
All Genus * Gavialis (Gharial) -- average 2 m to 5.5 m (7 ft to 18 ft), powerful jaws
All Genus * Tomistoma (False Gharial) -- average 3 m to 4 m (10 ft to 13 ft), powerful jaws

LIZARDS (Suborder Sauria):
Infraorder Iguania, Family Iguanidae Subfamily Iguaninae, Genus Varanus:
Varanus komodoensis (Komodo Dragon) -- average 2.5 m (8 ft) and 70kg
Varanus salvadorii (Crocodile Monitor) -- average 2 m (7 ft), toxic bite
Infraorder Scincomorpha, Family Lacertidae, Genus Podarcis:
Podarcis muralis (European Wall Lizard) -- proved invasive in BC

SNAKES (Suborder (Ophidia)):
Superfamily Xenophidia:
Most Genuses in Family Elapidae (Cobras, Kraits, Coral Snakes, Sea Snakes) -- those listed are highly venomous
Subfamily Elapinae:
* Calliophis (coral snakes)
* Micrurus including Leptomicrurus (coral snakes)
* Micruroides (western coral snake)
* Sinomicrurus (east Asian coral snakes)
* Aspidelaps (African coral snakes)
* Boulengerina (water cobras)
* Bungarus (kraits)
* Dendroaspis (mambas)
* Elapsoidea (venomous African garter snakes)
* Hemachatus (spitting cobra, ringhals)
* Hemibungarus (coral snakes, often synonymized with Calliophis)
* Maticora (Malaysian coral snakes, often synonymized with Calliophis)
* Naja (cobras)
* Ophiophagus (king cobra)
* Pseudohaje (tree cobras)
* Walterinnesia (desert cobra)
Subfamily Hydrophiinae:
* Acalyptophis (spiny-headed seasnake)
* Acanthophis (death adders)
* Aipysurus (sea snakes)
* Astrotia (Stoke's seasnake)
* Austrelaps (copperheads)
Genus Demansia, only: Demansia rufescens (Rufous Whip Snake)
* Disteira (sea snakes)
* Emydocephalus (sea snakes)
* Enhydrina (sea snakes)
* Ephalophis (mangrove sea snake)
* Hoplocephalus (Australian pale-headed snake, broad-headed snake, yellow banded snake)
* Hydrelaps (black ringed mangrove sea snake)
* Hydrophis (Austrasian sea snakes)
* Kerilia (Jerdon's sea snake, saddle-backed)
* Kolpophis (Annandale's sea snake)
* Lapemis (short sea snake, spine-bellied sea snake)
* Micropechis (small-eyed snake , ikaheka)
* Notechis (Australian tiger snakes)
* Oxyuranus (taipans)
* Parahydrophis (Merton's sea snake)
* Pelamis (yellow bellied sea snake, black and yellow / black-backed sea snake)
* Polyodontognathus (dwarf sea snake)
* Praescutata (viperine sea snake)
* Pseudechis (Austrasian mulga snakes, king brown snakes, black snakes)
* Pseudonaja (brown snakes, dugites)
* Thalassophis (anomalus sea snake)
* Tropidechis (Australian rough-scaled snake)
Subfamily Laticaudinae:
* Laticauda (sea kraits)
* Pseudolaticauda (flat-tailed and Chinese sea snakes)

Superfamily Xenophidia:
Most Genuses in Family Viperidae (Vipers and Pit Vipers) -- -- those listed are highly venomous
Subfamily Crotalinae (Pit Vipers):
* Agkistrodon (mocassins, copperheads, cottonmouths)
* Atropoides (jumping pit vipers)
* Bothriechis (palm pit vipers)
* Bothriopsis (forest pit vipers)
* Bothrocophias (lanceheads, toadheaded pit vipers)
* Bothrops (lanceheads)
* Calloselasma (Malayan pit viper)
* Cerrophidion (montane pit vipers)
* Crotalus (rattlesnakes)
* Cryptelytrops (tree vipers)
* Deinagkistrodon (hundred-pacer, Chinese moccasin)
* Garthius (Mount Kinabalu pit viper)
* Gloydius (mamushis, north-Asian pit vipers)
* Hypnale (hump-nosed vipers)
* Lachesis (bushmasters)
* Ophryacus (horned pit vipers)
* Ovophis (Asian mountain vipers)
* Parias (Asian pit vipers, often synonymized with Trimerisurus)
* Popeia (Malaysian rare viper)
* Porthidium (hognosed pit vipers)
* Peltopelor (Tamil Nadu and Kerala mountain viper, large-scaled pit viper)

Subfamily Viperinae (Pitless Vipers):
* Adenorhinos (Barbour's bush viper, uzungwe viper, udzungwa viper)
* Atheris (African bush vipers)
Genus Bitis: Bitis arietans (puff adder)
Bitis gabonica (Gaboon adder, Gaboon viper)
Bitis nasicornis (rhinoceros viper, river jack)
Bitis parviocula (Ethiopian viper, small-eyed puff adder)
* Cerastes (horned sand vipers, desert vipers, cerastes)
* Daboia (Russell's vipers, seven pacers, chain snakes)
* Echis (carpet vipers, saw-scaled vipers)
* Macrovipera (levantine vipers, blunt-nosed vipers)
* Montatheris (Kenyan montane viper)
* Proatheris (swamp viper, domino-bellied viper, eyebrow viper)
* Protobothrops (Southeast Asia pit vipers, habu)
* Sistrurus (massasauga, pygmy rattlesnakes)
* Triceratolepidophis (three horned/scaled pit viper)
* Trimeresurus (green pit vipers, lipped pit vipers, bamboo pit vipers)
* Tropidolaemus (Hutton's pit viper and temple/speckled pit viper)
* Viridovipera (green pit vipers, often synonymised with Trimeresurus)
* Vipera (European vipers, North African vipers, vipers, asps)
* Zhaoermia (Mangshan viper, iron-head snake)

Superfamily Xenophidia:
Family Atractaspididae (Stiletto Snakes and Mole Vipers), Subfamily Aparallactinae:
* Macrelaps (Natal black snake) -- highly venomous

Superfamily Xenophidia:
Family Colubridae, Subfamily Colubrinae:
Dispholidus typus (Boomslang) -- highly venomous
Thelotornis capensis (Vine Snake, Twig snake) -- highly venomous
Thelotornis kirtlandi (Forest Vine Snake, Bird Snake) -- highly venomous
Thelotornis mossambicanus (Mozambique twig/vine/bird snake) -- highly venomous
Thelotornis usambaricus (Usambara Vine Snake) -- highly venomous

Superfamily Henophidia, Family Boidae:
All Genus * Eunectes (Anacondas) -- average 5 m (16 ft)
Superfamily Henophidia, Family Boidae, Genus Python:
Python reticulatus (Reticulated Python) except dwarf mutations -- average 5 m to 7 m (16 ft to 22 ft)
Python sebae (African Rock Python) -- average 5 m (16 ft)




CATEGORY B
Large constrictor snakes whose adult average size is between 3 m (10 ft) AND 4.5 m (14 ft).
Venomous snakes whose bite is not lethal but still causes localised and temporary problems.
Crocodilians whose adult average does not exceed 1.2 m (4 ft).
Large lizards whose adult average size exceeds 1.6 m (5 ft) and 15 kg (33 lb.), but does not exceed 2 m (7 ft).
These animals should only be allowed in the keeping of people holding a permit based not only on the payment of a fee but on demonstrable capability for handling/husbandry (including requirements for properly sized and secure habitats/enclosures).


CROCODILES (Order Crocodylia)
Family Crocodylidae, Subfamily Alligatorinae:
Genus Paleosuchus: Paleosuchus palpebrosus (Cuvier's dwarf caiman) -- average 1.2 m (4 ft)

LIZARDS (Suborder Sauria)
Infraorder Iguania, Family Iguanidae, Subfamily Iguaninae, Genus Varanus:
Varanus niloticus (Nile Monitor) -- average 1.8 m (6 ft), powerful and aggressive
Varanus salvator (Water Monitor) -- average 2 m (7 ft), powerful and aggressive
Varanus giganteus (Perentie Monitor) -- average 2 m (7 ft), powerful and aggressive, toxic bite
Varanus varius (Lace Monitor, Cape Monitor) -- average 1.8 m (6 ft), powerful and aggressive, toxic bite

Infraorder Platynota, Family Helodermatidae:
All Genus * Heloderma (Gila Monsters, Beaded Lizards) -- only Genus of venomous lizards, low dangerousness

SNAKES (Suborder Serpentes (Ophidia))
Family Elapidae, Subfamily Elapinae:
* Paranaja (many-banded snake, burrowing cobra) -- venomous, but low danger
Family Elapidae, Subfamily Hydrophiinae:
* Aspidomorphus (crown snakes) -- venomous, but low danger
* Cacophis (crowned snakes) -- venomous, but low danger
* Demansia (Australian whip snakes) except: Demansia rufescens (Rufous Whip Snake) in Category A
* Denisonia (De Vi's banded snake, ornamental snake) -- venomous, but low danger
* Drysdalia (white-lipped snake, mustard-bellied snake, Master's snake) -- venomous, but low danger
* Echiopsis (bardick, Australian desert snake) -- venomous, but low danger
* Elapognathus (crowned snake, little brown snake) -- venomous, but low danger
* Furina (Australian yellow/orange/red naped snakes, Dunmall's, brown-headed snake) -- venomous, but low danger
* Hemiaspis (Australian grey snake, marsh snake) -- venomous, but low danger
* Loveridgelaps (solomons small-eyed snake) -- venomous, but low danger
* Ogmodon (Fijian bola or mountain snake) -- venomous, but low danger
* Parapistocalamus (Bougainvillian coral snake) -- venomous, but low danger
* Rhinoplocephalus (square-nosed snake, Muller's snake) -- venomous, but low danger
* Salomonelaps (solomon's coral snake) -- venomous, but low danger
* Simoselaps (Australian banded snakes) -- venomous, but low danger
* Suta (Australian curl snakes, spotted snakes, Rosen's snake) -- venomous, but low danger
* Toxicocalamus (New Guinea forest snakes) -- venomous, but low danger
* Vermicella (bandy bandy snakes) -- venomous, but low danger

Superfamily Xenophidia, Family Colubridae, Subfamily Colubrinae
All genus * Boiga (Cat Snakes, Tree Snakes, Mangrove Snakes) -- venomous, but low danger
Superfamily Xenophidia, Family Colubridae, Subfamily Natricinae:
All genus * Rhabdophis (Keelback Snakes, Asian Garter Snakes) -- venomous, but low danger

Superfamily Xenophidia, Family Viperidae, Subfamily Viperinae:
Genus Bitis;
Bitis albanica (many-horned adder) -- venomous, but moderate danger
Bitis armata (southern adder) -- venomous, but moderate danger
Bitis atropos (Berg adder, Cape mountain adder) -- venomous, but moderate danger
Bitis caudalis (horned adder) -- venomous, but moderate danger
Bitis cornuta (many-horned adder, hornsman adder, western horned adder) -- venomous, but moderate danger
Bitis heraldica (Angolan adder) -- venomous, but moderate danger
Bitis inornata (plain mountain adder, hornless adder) -- venomous, but moderate danger
Bitis peringueyi (Namib desert adder, side-winding adder, dwarf sand/puff adder) -- venomous, but moderate danger
Bitis rubida (plain mountain adder, red adder) -- venomous, but but moderate danger
Bitis schneideri (spotted dwarf adder, Namaqua dwarf adder) -- venomous, but moderate danger
Bitis worthingtoni (Kenya horned viper) -- venomous, but moderate danger
Bitis xeropaga (desert mountain adder) -- venomous, but moderate danger
* Causus (night adders) -- venomous, but low danger
* Eristicophis (McMahon's viper, leaf-nosed viper, kok snake, asian sand viper) -- venomous, but low danger
* Pseudocerastes (Persian horned viper, false-horned viper) -- venomous, but low danger

Superfamily Xenophidia, Family Viperidae, Subfamily Azemiopinae:
* Azemiops (Fea's viper) -- venomous, but low danger

Superfamily Xenophidia, Family Atractaspididae, Subfamily Aparallactinae:
* Amblyodipsas (purple-glossed snakes) -- venomous, but low danger
* Aparallactus (centipede-eaters) -- venomous, but low danger
* Brachyophis (Revoil's short snake) -- venomous, but low danger
* Chilorhinophis (two-headed snakes) -- venomous, but low danger
* Elapotinus (Jan's snake) -- venomous, but low danger
* Hypoptophis (African bighead snake) -- venomous, but low danger
*Micrelaps (African two-headed snakes, black-headed snakes) -- venomous, but low danger
* Polemon (snake-eaters) -- venomous, but low danger
* Xenocalamus (quill-snouted snakes) -- venomous, but low danger

Superfamily Henophidia, Family Boidae:
Genus Python: Python molurus (Burmese Python) except dwarf mutations -- average 4 m (13 ft) and 40kg
Genus Morelia: Morelia amethistina (Amethystine Python) -- average 4.5 m (15 ft) and 25kg